Flora and fauna in the Dukla Municipality
The Dukla Municipality is rich in flora (about 900 species).
Dukla lies in the area between the Eastern and Western Carpathian. What is characteristic for the area, it is extinction of flora of the Eastern Carpathian (6 species) and increase of plants and trees of the Western Carpathian, for example: monkshood (Aconitum variegatum), common broom (Sarothamnus scoparius), milkwort (Polygala), round-leaved bedstraw (Galium rotundifolium) and ragwort (Senecio rivularis). Many plants grow in the western part of the the Lower Beskids e.g. aconite (Aconitum paniculatum). When we talk about flora of the region we have to mention Gallic rose (Rosa gallica), common gromwell (Lithospermum officinale), catmint (Nepeta nuda), European bladdernut (Staphylea pinnata) and two-leaf squill (Scilla bifolia).
About 90 types of mountain plants, for example: doronicum (Doronicum austriacum), false hellebores (Veratum lobelianum) and Alpine Sow-thistle (Cicerbita alpina). Shrubby yews can be found in ‘Wadernik’ Nature Reserve. The only place in the Lower Beskids where Polish larch grows is in the surroundings of Barwinek in ‘Modrzyna’ Nature Reserve. Worth mentioning are plants included in the Red Polish Book of Plants: orchis (Orchis militaris and Orchis pallens) and marsh helleborine (Epipactis palustris). About 40 species are under legal protection and 11 are partly protected. The main element of natural forests is the community of beeches.
In the lower part of forest you can find lime trees. On the moist substrate grow wild garlic (Allium ursinum) and goat’s beard (Aruncus dioicus) and on the dry ground wood-rush (Luzula) and sedges (Carex).
Small alder trees with rare ostrich fern (Matteuccia struthiopteris) can be found by the rivers and streams, whereas hart’s-tongue fern (Phyllitis scolopendrium) and sycamore in the area of the Piotruś Mountain and ‘Przełom Jasiołki’ Nature Reserve.
Typical mountain fauna includes many forest species. There are 276 types of vertebrates (mammals – 64 types, birds – 152, fish – 41 and reptiles – 7). 194 species are under strict and 7 under partial protection.
Fauna in the area is typical of the borderland, what means that typical mountain species live next to lowlands animals. Mountain species are: alpine shrew (Sorex alpinus), grey wagtail (Motacilla cinerea), alpine and Carpathian newts (Triturus alpestris, Triturus montadoni), spotted nutcracker (Nucifraga caryocatactes), and lowlands are: Eurasian pendulines (Remiz pendulinus), European fire-bellied toad (Bombina bombina), northern crested newt (Triturus cristatus).
In forest inhabit wolves (Canis lupus), foxes (Vulpes vulpes), lynxes (Lynx lynx) wild cats (Felis silvestris) and meles (Meles meles). There are also brown bears (Ursus arctos) and elks (Alces alces).
In the Dukla Municipality there are 120 species of birds. Birds of prey include: golden and lesser spotted eagles (Aqulia chrysaetos, Aquila pomarina), sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), rough-legged hawks (Buteo lagopus), hobbies and kestrels (Falco subbuteo, Falco tinnunculus), red footed falcons (Falco vespertinus). There are 7 types of owls, 10 species of woodpeckers and 11 species of trushes, a few black storks (Ciconia nigra), hazel grouses (Bonasa bonafi) and songbirds typical for the Carpathian.
Rich collections of insects and butterflies are represented by: 100 types of weevils including rare examples which grow in the Western Carpathian, and butterflies such as: Purple Emperor (Apatura iris), Clouded Apollo (Parnassius mnemosyne), Camberwell Beauty (Nymphalis antiopa), large tortoiseshell (Nymphalis polychloros), swallowtail (Papilion machon), sail swallowtail (Papilio podalirius) and death’s – head hawkmoth.